This project advances research on two themes that have emerged from contemporary scientific and public debates on challenges to democracy: political polarization and political participation. Extant research has found rising levels of polarization among mass publics, while the development of political participation since the millennium has been characterized by an almost universal decline in traditional, institutional forms but an increase in new, non-institutional forms of participation in several countries. The project deals with both important phenomena and explores their association.

POPAPOL is a WEAVE project, financed by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) (10.55776/I6295), Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) (N5-0293), National Science Centre Poland (NCN) (2022/04/Y/HS6/00024).

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